|Image taken from Google|
Earlier Modifications in India's Education Policy:
- University Education Commission (1948-49)
- Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)
- Education Commission (1964-66) under Dr. D.S. Kothari
- National Policy on Education, 1968
- 42nd Constitutional Amendment, 1976 - Education was included in Concurrent List
- National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986
- NPE modified in 1982 through Program of Action 1992
- Current NDA Government asked for a report to help design the New Education Policy
- T.S.R. Subramanian Committee Report (27 May, 2016)
- Dr. K. Kasturirangan Committee Report (31 May, 2019)
NEP 2020: Consultation Process
- Between May-October 2015, nearly 2.5 lakhs Gram Panchayats, 6600 Blocks, 6000 ULBs, 676 Districts were consulted.
- Draft of NEP was created in 2019. Summary was available in 27 Languages/Audio Books
- Educational dialogue was conducted with MPs of Andra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Karnataka and Odisha to incorporate their advice in the policy.
NEP 2020: Major Reforms in Higher Education
- Target to achieve 50% Enrollment ratio in Higher Educational Institutions by 2035.
- Provision to facilitate Holistic and Multidisciplinary Education i.e. Flexibility of Subjects. Entry/Exit from multiple courses will be allowed.
- UG will be 3 or 4 year
- PG will be 1 or 2 year
- Integrated 5 year Bachelor's / Master's degree
- M.Phil degree would be discontinued
- Research / Training Intensive Universities and Autonomous Degree Granting Colleges would be established.
- Establishment of Multidisciplinary Education and Research University(MERU) to serve as model for other universities.
- Affiliation of Colleges/Universities would expire after 15 years, following which they would need to renew their affiliation.
- There would be a Single Regulatory body for Higher Education(excluding Legal and Medical studies).
- Public Investment in the education sector to be increased to 6% of the GDP
- Integration of Vocational, Teacher and Professional Education
- Special Education Zones to be created for Disadvantaged Regions
- National Institutes for ancient languages of Pali, Persian and Prakrit to be established
- MHRD to be renamed as Ministry of Education.
NEP 2020: Reforms pertaining to Indian Culture and Values
- Focus on Literature and Scientific Vocabulary of Indian Languages, Establishment of Language Faculty.
- Strengthening National Institutes for Research on Languages, promotion on Classical Languages and Literature.
- Establishment of Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation (IITI)
- Promotion of Cultural Awareness of our Indian Knowledge Systems.
NEP 2020: Focus on Technology
- Extensive use of Technology in:
- Education Planning
- Teaching, Learning and Assessment
- Administration & Management
- Regulation - Self Disclosure & Minimum Human Interface
- Increase Access to education for Disadvantaged groups.
- Use of Divyang Friendly Education Software
- Provision for E-Content in Regional Languges.
- Establishment of National Educational Technology Forum (NETF) and Virtual Labs.
- Digitally Equipping Schools, Teachers and Students.
NEP 2020: Major Reforms in School Education
- Make Early Childhood Care and Education(ECCE) universal across India.
- To enable every child with basic Maths and Written ability, National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy is proposed.
- Earlier the school education was only recognized as 10+2(class 1-10)+(class 11-12) and preliminary education was neglected by the government. A major positive reform has been the introduction of 5+3+3+4 Curricular which means now, schooling would be seen as 5 years of preliminary(class Nursery-2), 3 years of junior school(class 3-5), 3 years of middle school(class 6-8) and 4 years of high school(class 9-12).
- School Curriculum to include 21st Century skills, Mathematical Thinking and Scientific Temper. Reduction in curriculum to focus on core concepts
- No rigid separation between Arts and Science, between Curricular and Extra-Curricular and between Vocational and Academic streams.
- Vocational Integration from class 6th onwards.
- Board Examinations to be structured to have Low Stakes(as compared to the stressful exams today) and Based on Knowledge Application.
- Medium of education till at-least class 5, and preferably even till class 8+ in Home Language/Mother Tongue/Regional Languages.
- 360 degree Holistic Progress card for school children.
- Establishment of National Assessment Center - PARAKH.
- NTA to offer Common Entrance Exam for admission into Higher Educational Institutes(HEIs)
- Proposal of National Professional Standards for Teachers(NPST).
- Transparent online self-disclosure of Schools for public oversight and accountability.
NEP 2020: Expected Outcomes
- Universalization(available to every child) from ECCE to Secondary Education by 2030
- Attaining Foundational Learning & Numerical Skills for all through National Mission by 2025.
- 100% Gross-enrollment-ratio in Pre-School to Secondary Level by 2030.
- Bring Back 2 Cr. Drop Out Students.
- Teachers to be prepared for Assessment Reforms by 2023.
- Board Exams to test core concepts and Application of Knowledge.
- Every child to come out of school adept in at least 1 skill.
- Common standards of learning in Public and Private Schools.